All the rivers in Andhra
Pradesh are basically rain dependent and they have large currents in
rainy season and low currents in summer. Some rivers are even dry in
summer. The major rivers in Andhra Pradesh are Godavari, Krishna,
Tungabhadra, Pennar, Manjira, Nagavali, and Vamsadhara.
The Krishna and Godavari rivers are the largest and broadest in South India. In Andhra Pradesh all the rivers generally flows from northwest to southeast. Except Godavari, Pennar, Krishna, Tungabhadra, Bhima, Manjeera, Pranahita, all rivers have their source at East mountainsides and destination at Bay of Bengal. The Deccan rivers (Godavari and Krishna) contribute about 30 % of the total out flow in India. Of this, the rivers that flow from the west to east account for 20 % and those from the east to west about 10 %.
The Godavari and its tributaries flow through the states of Maharashtra , Karnataka , Madhya Pradesh , Orissa and Andhra Pradesh. The recorded peak discharge of Godavari at Dhawaleshwaram was noted to be 85,000 cubic metres per second (30 lakh cusecs).
The Godavari, which is the Second largest river in India, flows through the districts of Nizamabad, Adilabad, Karimnagar, Warangal, Khammam, East Godavari and West Godavari of the state. It enters the state in Basar Village of Adilabad District and is fed by a number of tributaries, important among them being Pranahita, Kinnerasani, Manjira, Sabari, Indravati and Penganga. The Pranahita is an important tributary, is itself formed by the confluence of the Penganga, the Wardha and Waiganga.
The Godavari rises at Trimbak near Nasik in Maharashtra and flows for 692-Kms before entering Andhra Pradesh in Adilabad district. It flows through the Eastern Ghats and emerges out at Polavaram into the plains.
At Dhawaleswaram the river divides into two branches, the Gautami and Vasishta. Between the two lies the Godavari Central Delta. The two arms split into branches as they approach the sea dividing the Central Delta into a number of islands. These branches are said to have been made by seven great 'Rishis' after whom they are named.
A Peculiar Characteristic
The peculiar characteristic of the river Godavari is that it receives most of its water not from the Western Ghats but in the lower reaches. The Manjira, the Pranahita, the Indravati and Sabari contribute 6%, 40%, 20% and 10% of the waters respectively.
Almost two- thirds of the catchment of the Godavari drains into it in the last one-third of its length. Where the river enters the State, its catchment is only 17% of the total catchment and yields a mere 6%. It flows into Bay of Bengal after traversing a total length of 1446-kms.
The Krishna is the second largest river in the State. The traditional source of the river is a spout from the cow's mouth in the ancient temple of Mahadev in Mahabaleswar in Maharastra at an elevation of 1337m and it flows 780-kms before it enters Andhra Pradesh. The length of the Krishna River is 1400-kms. The total catchment is 2,59,000-sq-kms. The river gets most of its water from Western Ghats.
Entering the State near Tangadi Village in Mahaboobnagar district, it flows through Kurnool, Nalgonda, Guntur and Krishna districts, splits into three main branches and enters into the Bay of Bengal between Hamsala Deevi and Nachakunta in Krishna District.
The main tributaries of the river are the Koyna, the Bhima, the Ghataprabha, the Mallaprabha, the Tungabhadra, the Yerla, the Warna, the Dindi, the Musi, and the Dudhganga. Of them, the tributary Tungabhadra is the most important, a confluence of the Tunga and Bhadra from Karnataka . It joins Krishna at Sangameswar in Kurnool district.
The river Pennar known also as "Uttara Pinakini" has its origin in the Nandidurg hills of Mysore. After traversing 40-kms in Mysore State, it enters Anantapur district of the state. It flows through Cuddapah and Nellore district before entering into the Bay of Bengal near Utukur in Nellore District through several openings.
Its total length in Andhra Pradesh is almost 568-kms. The important tributaries of Pennar are the Jayamangali, the Chitravati, the Kunderu, the Papagni, the Sagileru, the Cheyyeru, the Boggeru and the Biraperu.
The Vamsadhara River is the biggest of the river systems flowing from Eastern Ghats into the Bay of Bengal. It is 250-kms long. The catchment is 41,400-sq-kms flowing through Srikakulam district. It rises at Jayapur hills and enters Andhra Pradesh at Patapatnam, and merges into the sea at Kalingapatnam.
It is also called the "Lungutla" in its lower reaches. It is 220-kms long rivers, of which 115-km lie in Andhra Pradesh. It rises in Orissa , flows through Vijayanagaram and Srikakulam districts, before joining the sea near Mofaz Bandar in Srikakulam district. Its chief tributary, the Swarnamukhi also originates from Orissa.
The Gundlakamma takes its origin from the Nallamalai hills near Gundla Brahmeswaram in Kurnool district. After receiving the two mountain torrents, the Jampaleru and the Enumaleru, the river enters the plains through the gorge of Cumbum.
After traversing round Cumbum town, it turns to the north and takes a tortuous course before leaving the district at Mummadivaram. Below Mummadivaram the river changes its course into the east and then to the south and ultimately falls into the sea near Ulchi in Ongole Taluk of Guntur district.
Tungabhadra a confluence of the 'Tunga' and 'Bhadra' from Karnataka is an important tributary of the river Krishna. It rises in the Varaha hills and joins the river Krishna at Sangameswar in Kurnool district.
This river rises in the Chandragiri hills of Chittoor district. It flows through Nellore District and enters the sea, near Siddavatam in Nellore district.
Manjeera is a tributary of river Godavari and is a principal river flowing in Nizamabad district. It rises in the Balaghat hills and enters Andhra Pradesh in Medak district. It contributes to about 6% of the waters of Godavari.
The Pranahita is an important tributary of the Godavari and is formed by the confluence of the Penganga, the Wardha and Waiganga. Rising in the Satpura hills, it enters Andhra Pradesh in Adilabad district and mingles into river Godavari at Chennur.
Musi is an important tributary of river Krishna. It rises in the Ananthagiri hills and enters Andhra Pradesh at Shivareddypeta in Rangareddy district. It enters the Nalgonda district from the northwest direction and flows due east for a distance of 64-km. It falls into the Krishna at Vadapalli, Nalgonda district along with the river Aler after a course of 153-km.
Dindi, a tributary of river Krishna rises in the Shabad mountains and enters Andhra Pradesh in Mahaboobnagar district and mingles into the river Krishna at Eleswaram.
Indravati is an important tributary of river Godavari and contributes to about 20% of the waters of Godavari. It is the largest and the most important river in Bastar district of Orissa .
The Indravati River rises from Rampur Thuamul in the Orissa state and flowing through the Bastar division for about 240 miles, it finally merges into the Godavari at Bhadrakali in Dantewada district. Owing to its rocky bed the river is not navigable except near its junction at Godavari. Neither the river nor its tributaries dry up in the hot season.
Munneru is a tributary of river Krishna. The birthplace of this river is Pakalachervu.
A tributary of river Krishna, it flows through Warangal district and mingles into river Krishna near Jaggayyapeta.
The river Sabari is a tributary to the River Godavari. It merges with the river Godavari in Kunavaram, about 40-km from Bhadrachalam.
Sileru is also a tributary of river Godavari and it flows through the Srikakulam district of Andhra Pradesh.