COLONIAL ARCHITECTURE

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Location: Delhi
Construction Style Based On: English Renaissance, Dutch & German Architecture
Some Famous Monuments Of This Architectural Style: Parliament House, President's House, Connaught Place


The architectural styles of the British period in Delhi are represented by the Central Secretariat, Parliament House or the 'Sansad Bhavan' and the President's House or Rashtrapati Bhavan, formerly the British viceroy's house combine the best features of the modern English school of architecture with traditional Indian forms.

In the post independence era, public buildings in Delhi began to show a utilitarian bias and a search for a synthesis of Indian and Western styles; the attempt, however, has not always been successful, as is evident from the Supreme Court building, the Science Building, which is a conference hall and the government ministries.

The Children's Building representing a children's centre and Rabindra Building, a fine arts centre show a trend toward a new style, using modern materials. Along the Yamuna riverfront, memorials set in flowering gardens have been built for such 20th century national leaders as Mahatma Gandhi - Raj Ghat, Jawaharlal Nehru - Shanti Vana, and Lal Bahadur Shastri - Vijay Ghat.

The British followed various architectural styles - Gothic, Imperial, Christian, English Renaissance and Victorian being the essentials.
In 1911 King George V passed an order declaring that the capital would be moved from Calcutta to Delhi. The city was planned systematically, combining 20th century architecture. Sir Edward Lutyens was responsible for the overall plan of Delhi, and his tour de forte is Rajpath, approached by a 3.2-km long road flanked by the imposing buildings of the two Secretariats, which were built by Herbert Baker.

The Rashtrapati Bhawan is built of brown stone and is truly an appropriate home for the President of the second largest democracy in the world. Yet, it wasn't Lutyens or Bakers, who built the rest of Delhi, as it's commonly believed. Most if its structures were designed by an unknown Englishman called Robert Tor Tussell, who built Connaught Place, Eastern and Western Courts, Flagstaff House, where Jawaharlal Nehru lived later on and the thousands of public buildings, post offices, officer's bungalows and public buildings.

St Martin's Garrison Church is the final British piece of architecture and one of the most important ones because it represents the end of a search for a definitive style of over 200 years. Looming out of the ground and made of three and a half million red bricks, the Church is a huge monolith with a high square tower and deeply sunken window ledges, exquisitely reminding of Dutch and German architecture.



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