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Location: Kachchh, Gujarat.
Traces Of: Harappan Civilization.
Nearby City: Bhuj.
Main Finds: Linga Like Objects.

Around 2,300 BC, the Harappans came to Surkotada and built a fortified citadel and residential annexe, made of mud brick, mud lumps and rubble containing houses with bathrooms and drains. They had painted pottery with Indus alphabet painted on the pots, chert blades and copper objects, a typical Harappa seal has also been found.

Among the interesting finds are clay 'linga' like objects evidently of cult significance. A piece of charred rope adds to the variety of the finds. Bones of the Equus from the earliest levels is an important discovery as this reveals that the animal was known to the Harappans. Some important finds are a typical Harappan terracotta seal, a heavy copper chisel, a hoard of copper beads and bangles and terracotta toys, tanks and beads besides animal skeletal remains of horses, camels, elephants and sheep.

Surkotda in Kachchh - GujaratUNUSUAL PRACTICES:
The Harappans buried the bones of their dead in small oval pits and put jars and dishes on a stand probably for keeping food etc and covered it with a huge slab. This practice is unprecedented in the Harappan burial tradition.

The excavations have revealed that the Harappans lived here along with an antecedent culture with all their typical modes of habitation and cultural assemblage and continued even after the mature phase was over.

The excavation brought to light a sequence of three phases of the Harappa Culture. From the very beginning of the occupation, the settlement was fortified on a rectangular plan, divided into two equal parts. The western half was used as a citadel while the eastern served as the lower city for residential purposes. The fortifications were made of mud with a veneer of rubble masonry.

The objects obtained from the deposits of this period were largely Harappan, and included a typical Indus seal, long chert-blades, beads, etc. The people practiced pot-burial as one of the models for the disposal of the dead. In the sub-Period IB, the Indus elements became less pronounced with the appearance of a new ceramic tradition of coarse red ware.

Among the finds were a copper flat-celt and chisel. The upper levels yielded sherds of white-painted black-and-red ware, indicating the arrival of a new group of settlers, in the area. In sub-Period IC, the Indus pottery tradition was further restricted, the dominant ceramic type was the white-painted black-and-red ware.

The new arrivals reconstructed the fortifications in rubble masonry. The citadel had two entrances; one from the lower city on the east and the other on the southern side. The finds included beads of steatite and carnelian, a big terracotta painted bull, square terracotta tanks, and few chert blades.

Air: Nearest Airport Bhuj.
Road: Approachable from Bhuj by road and a regular bus service is available.

Bhuj: 85 kms (Approx.)

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