Lying on the northern bank of the lost Saraswati, the
ancient site at Banawali is spread over an area of about 400 sq. m with a
height of about 9 to 10 m above the surrounding ground level. Banawali is
a Pre Harappan and Harappan site. The mound in Banawali, 15kms from
Fatehabad, reveals a fortified town (2500 BC - 1700 BC ).
Its inhabitants lived in brick houses and used clay pottery, beads of semi-precious stones and bangles, worshipping a mother goddess set in terracotta. At Banawali, evidence of ploughed fields has been found. Large quantity of barley and evidence of growing of sesame and mustard have also been found. The use of wooden plough for ploughing the fields was prevalent. A fire altar has also been found here.
The excavations at this site have yielded the remains of pre, intermediate and post-Harappan cultures of the Period I pre-Harappan/Kalibangan Culture. During this sub-period, it was an open settlement having no circumvallation.
The entire settlement was planned and constructed afresh. The fortification of the previous period was externally chiselled or partially sliced away from the outside in order to add another massive wall against it. This walled area of the preceding period was made into a citadel while the lower town was laid out towards the east, north and west and brought in a general fortification.
Period II belonged to the mature Harappans, who almost meticulously maintained the bilocular layout of settlement. The streets were laid out in a rather radial or semi-radial system. The elaborate gate-complex was provided with flanking bastions and a broad passageway.
The Antique Finds
Among the antiquities, terracotta female figurines along with usual male and animal figurines of the Indus types, and animal figurines, seals and sealings, weights, pieces of gold ornaments, beads of lapis lazuli, etched carnelian, faience, steatite, clay and copper etc., were excavated, the most important being a complete clay model of a plough.
By and large, pottery has shown strong genetic relationship with two distinct ceramics, i.e. the Kalibangan pottery and the Bara pottery. In addition, there is a third category of pottery, which is in red ware of coarse fabric and thin wall. Smaller finds are very few and exclude all classical Indus items except the clay nodules of different shapes while the triangular terracotta cakes are, however, absent. Most valued antiquity of the period is a black terracotta object of which only three fragments were found. It appears to be some sort of a cult object associated with serpent worship.
How To Get There
Air: The nearest airport is at Delhi.
Rail: The nearest rail junction is at Bhattu.
Road: Banawali has bus station of its own.